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留学签证
签证敏感专业
   编辑:管理员   浏览:5  时间:2016-9-1 

在F-1美国学生签证过程中,有很多学生由于所学专业属于敏感专业因而会被使馆check。F-1签证并不难申请,普通学生只要简明地向签证官解释:学习动机、资金证明、学习能力以及毕业去向。但是对于一些申请敏感专业的学生,比如物理、化学、EE等专业,这些专业容易引起签证官的怀疑并被Check一段时间,对于较高端的研究生或者博士生,被Check的几率更大。以下简要地介绍一下。

(一)        敏感专业列表:
1、        Conventional Munitions—(与常规军火有关的专业)
-- Warheads and other large caliber projectiles (弹头和其他大口径弹丸)
  -- Reactive armor and warhead defeat systems (反应装置和导弹防御系统)
  -- F 一流信息监控拦截系统

cal to that needed to build a ballistic missile.
——包括弹道导弹系统,太空运载火箭、探空火箭,无人飞行器(包括巡航导弹,靶机和侦察机)
4、Rocket System and Unmanned Air Vehicle Subsystems—火箭系统和无人驾驶飞行器子系统
    -- Liquid and solid rocket propulsion systems液体和固体火箭推进系统
    -- Missile propulsion and systems integration导弹推进系统集成
    -- Individual rocket stages or staging/separation mechanism 单机火箭的分离机制
    -- Aerospace thermal (such as superalloys ) and high-performance structures              航天热(例如高温合金)以及高性能结构
    -- Propulsion systems test facilities推进系统试验设施
5、Navigation, Avionics and Flight Control Useable in Rocket Systems and Unmanned Air Vehicles (UVA)—可用于火箭系统和无人驾驶飞行器子系统的航海、航空电子学和飞行控制技术
   -- Internal navigation systems内部导航系统
  -- Tracking and terminal homing devices跟踪和末制导设备
  -- Accelerometers and gyroscopes加速度计和陀螺仪
  -- Rocket and UAV and flight control systems. 火箭、无人机和飞行控制系统
  -- Global Positioning System (GPS) 全球定位系统
6、Chemical, Biotechnology and Biomedical Engineering—化学、生物技术和生物医学工程
    The technology used to produce chemical and biological weapons is inherently dual-use. The same technologies that could be applied to develop and produce chemical and biological weapons are used widely by civilian research laboratories and industry; these technologies are relatively common in many countries. Advanced biotechnology has the potential to support biological weapons research. In the biological area, look for interest in technologies associated with:
       -- Aerobiology (study of microorganisms found in the air or in aerosol form) 空气生物学
  -- Biochemistry生物化学
  -- Pharmacology药理学
  -- I 一流信息监控拦截系统 ilian imagery projects or for military and intelligence reconnaissance activities. Drones and remotely piloted vehicles also augment satellite capabilities. Key-word associated technologies are:
       -- Remote sensing satellites遥感卫星
    -- High resolution multi-spectral, electro-optical and radar data/imagery高分辨率多光谱,光电和雷达数据/图像技术
    -- Imagery instruments, cameras, optics, and synthetic aperture radar systems                                                                    图像仪器,照相机,光学,以及合成孔径雷达系统。
    -- Ground receiving stations and data/image processing systems地面接收站和数据/图像处理系统
    -- Photogrammetry摄影测绘学
    -- Imagery data and information products图像数据和信息产品
    -- Piloted aircraft驾驶飞机
    -- Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAV) 无人飞行器
    -- Remotely-piloted vehicles; and drones远程车辆和飞机
8、Advanced Computer/Microelectronic Technology—高级计算机/微电子技术
    Computers and software play a useful (but not necessarily critical) role in the development and deployment of missiles and missile systems, and in the development and production of nuclear weapons. Advanced computer capabilities are also used in over-the-horizon targeting, airborne early warning targeting, Electronic Countermeasures (ECM) processors. These technologies are associated with:
      -- Supercomputing, hybrid computing超级计算,混合运算
   -- Speech processing/recognition systems语音处理/识别系统
   -- Neural networks神经网络
   -- Data fusion数据融合
   -- Quantum wells, resonant tunneling量子威尔斯,谐振隧穿
   -- Superconductivity 超导性
   -- Advance optoelectronics光电子学
   -- Acoustic wave devices, 声表面波器件
   -- Superconducting electron devices超导电子器件
   -- Flash discharge type x-ray systems闪光放电型X射线系统
   -- Frequency synthesizers频率合成器
   -- Microcomputer compensated crystal oscillators微机补偿晶体振荡器
9、Materials Technology—材料技术
    The metallic, ceramic and composite materials are primarily related to structural functions in aircraft, spacecraft, missiles, undersea vehicles, and propulsion devices. Polymers provide seals and sealants for containment of identified fluids and lubricants for various vehicles and devices. High density graphite is used in missile nosetips, jet vanes and nozzle throats. Selected specialty materials (i.e., stealth and the performance of these materials) provide critical capabilities that exploit electromagnetic absorption, magnetic, or superconductivity characteristics. These technologies are associated with:
     -- Advanced metals and alloys先进金属和合金
   -- Non-composite ceramic materials复合陶瓷材料
   -- Ceramic, cermet, organic and carbon materials 陶瓷,陶瓷金属和碳材料
   -- Polymeric materials高分子材料
   -- Synthetics fluids合成液体
   -- Hot isostatic热等静压
   -- Densifications 浓缩技术
   -- Intermetallic金属间化合物
   -- Organometals 有机金属
   -- Liquid and solid lubricant液体和固体润滑剂
   -- Magnetic metals and superconductive conductors磁性金属和超导体
10、Information Security—信息安全
    Technologies associated with cryptography and cryptographic systems to ensure secrecy for communications, video, data and related software.
11、Laser and Directed Energy Systems Technology—激光和定向能系统技术
    Lasers have critical military applications, including incorporation in guided ordinance such as laser guided bombs and ranging devices. Directed energy technologies are used to generate electromagnetic radiation or particle beams and to project that energy on a specific target. Kinetic energy technologies are those used to impart a high velocity to a mass and direct it to a target. Directed energy and kinetic energy technologies have potential utility in countering missiles and other applications. Look for technologies associated with:
     -- Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) 原子蒸气激光同位素分离
   -- Molecular Laser Isotope Separation (MLIS) 分子法激光同位素分离
   -- High Energy Lasers (HEL) (i.e., laser welders) 高能量激光
   -- Low Energy Lasers (LEL) 低能量激光
   -- Semiconductor lasers半导体激光
   -- Free electron lasers自由电子激光器
   -- Directed Energy (DE) systems定向能量系统
   -- Kinetic Energy (KE) systems动能系统
   -- Particle beam, beam rider, electromagnetic guns, Optoelectronics/electro-oPtics (Europe)
     -- Optical tracking (i.e., target designators) 光学跟踪 (例如目标指示器)
   -- High energy density高能量密度
   -- High-speed pulse generation, pulsed power高速脉冲,脉冲电源
   -- Hypersonic and/or hypervelocity高超声速和/或超高速
   -- Magnetohydrodynamics磁性铃动力学
11、Sensors and Sensor Technology—传感器和传感器技术
   Sensors provide real-time information and data, and could provide a significant military advantage in a conflict. Marine acoustics is critical in anti-submarine warfare; gravity meters are essential for missile launch calibration. Look for technologies associated with:
     -- Marine acoustics海洋声学
   -- Optical sensors光感测器
   -- Night vision devices, image intensification devices夜视设备,图像增强装置
   -- Gravity meters重力仪
   -- High speed photographic equipment高速摄影器材
   -- Magnetometers磁强计
12、Marine Technology—海洋工学
    Marine technologies are often associated with submarines and other deep submersible vessels; propulsion systems designed for undersea use and navigation and quieting systems are associated with reducing detectability and enhancing operations survivability. Look for technologies connected with:
     -- Submarines and submersibles潜艇和潜水器
   -- Undersea robots海底机器人
   -- Marine propulsion systems船舶推进系统
   -- Signature recognition签名识别技术
   -- Acoustic and non-acoustic detection声学和非声学探测
   -- Acoustic, wake, radar and magnetic signature reduction
     -- Magnetohydrodynamics磁性铃动力学
   -- Stirling engines and other air independent propulsion systems
13、Robotics—机器人技术
   -- Artificial intelligence人工智能技术
   -- Automation自动化技术
   -- Computer-controlled machine tools计算机控制的机床
    -- Pattern recognition technologies. 模式识别技术
14、Urban Planning—城市规划
    Expertise in construction or design of systems or technologies necessary to sustain modern urban societies. (PLEASE NOTE: Urban Planning may not fall under the purview of INA section 212 (a)(3)(a), U.S. technology transfer laws, or any other U.S. law or regulation. However, Urban Planning is a special interest item and posts are requested to refer such visa application requests to CA/VO/L/C for further review.) Look for technologies/skills associated with:
     -- Architecture
     -- Civil engineering
    -- Community development
    -- Environmental planning
    -- Geography
    -- Housing
    -- Landscape architecture
    -- Land use and comprehensive planning
    -- Urban design

(二)敏感专业处理办法
    大部分理工专业都是和敏感专业相关的,遇到这种情况不要太担心,按照以下方法可以解除签证官对于敏感专业的疑虑

(1)尽可能明白浅显地向签证官解释该专业的学习内容;
不要详细地描述你去到美国的学习和研究内容的前沿性、尖端性,用通俗易懂的语言向签证官解释你这个专业是学什么的,做什么的,体现出通俗、易懂、有益、无害,消灭敏感度。

(2)明确自己的学习计划;
如果你能够清晰地向签证官阐述你的赴美的学习和研究计划,这就好像把专业敏感度放在阳光底下一样,可以很大程度上打消签证官的疑虑。

(3)准备好充足的材料;
如果签证官对申请者的专业敏感度存在疑虑的话,那么他一般会重点查阅申请者的几样材料:包括:简历、Study Plan、导师的个人信息介绍。因此准备好这些材料,方便在签证官需要的时候及时提供。

(4)做好被Check的心理准备;
如果知道自己的专业是敏感的,那么最好在去签证前做好被Check的心理准备,然后以一个平常心的去争取不被Check而当场获得通过。避免由于过于害怕被Check而最终造成被拒的情况出现。

    其实,只要做好以上几点,即使由于这个专业敏感度被Check, 那最终的结果往往都意味着获得签证。在此祝所有拿到录取的学生的签证都能顺利通过。

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